COVID-19 Treatment Information for Providers

View National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 treatment guidelines.

Who is eligible for treatment?

Outpatient treatment is authorized for patients at high risk of severe COVID-19. Treatment must be used less than 7 days after symptom onset. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be used every 6 months.

Patients at highest risk of severe COVID-19:

  • 65 years or older.
  • Unvaccinated or partially vaccinated.
  • Compromised immune system.

While supplies are limited, follow NIH patient prioritization guidelines. Providers must be good stewards of these limited supplies.

What treatments are available?

Authorized ages12 years or older. All ages.18 years or older. 
Start treatment Less than 5 days after symptom onset. Less than 7 days after symptom onset.  Less than 5 days after symptom onset.  
AdministrationOral. IV. Oral. 
Treatment duration 5 days. 3 days. 5 days. 
Pros High efficacy. Oral.High efficacy. Longer history of use.Oral. No drug-drug interaction concerns.
Cons Ritonavir-related drug interactions.Requires 3 days of IV infusion. Not Food and Drug Administration- (FDA-) approved for outpatients.Low efficacy. Not authorized for children under 18 years old. Not approved for pregnant people. Mutagenicity concerns.
Availability Limited. Commercially available. More available than paxlovid and sotrovimab. 

Source: What clinicians need to know about the new oral antiviral medications for COVID-19, Jan. 12, 2022, Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Oral antivirals

Type Nucleoside analogue antiviral.Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir) is a protease inhibitor, co-administered with the medication ritonavir.
Efficacy30% reduction in hospitalization and death. 88% reduction in hospitalization and death.
Prescribing Fact sheet for providers. Review safety warnings before prescribing. Fact sheet for providers.
Clinical concerns Emergency use authorization (EUA) frequently asked questions (FAQs).
-CDC COCA call update
Drug interactions.
-CDC COCA call update.
PAXLOVID Patient Eligibility Screening Checklist, (FDA).
Dosage Four 200 mg capsules taken orally every 12 hours for 5 days.Two 150 mg tablets of Paxlovid with one 100 mg tablet of ritonavir taken orally twice daily for 5 days.
Common side effects Diarrhea, nausea, dizziness.Hepatotoxicity, hypertension, muscle aches, diarrhea. 
More information Fact sheet for patients, parents and caregivers.
-Washington State Department of Health (DOH) use guidance
Fact sheet for patients, parents and caregivers.
-DOH use guidance.

Monoclonal antibodies

TypeCombination monoclonal antibody for PrEP.
Efficacy83% reduction in development of symptomatic COVID-19 in a 6-month trial.
PrescribingFact sheet for providers.
Clinical concernsEUA FAQs. Do not give evusheld within 2 weeks of COVID-19 vaccine.
DosageIntramuscular injection every 6 months.
Common side effectsPain at the injection site, allergic reactions. Clinical trial signal of increased risk of heart disease.
More informationFact sheet for patients, parents and caregivers.
-DOH use guidance.

How do providers access treatments?

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) allocates monoclonal antibodies oral antiviral supplies to each state. DOH distributes doses to enrolled providers. Providers must enroll in Healthcare Partner Ordering Portal (HPoP) to manage COVID-19 therapeutics. Email for support enrolling in HPoP.

To request monoclonal antibodies or therapeutics, enroll in HPoP, then complete a smart sheet.

Supplies are limited. Washington gets new monoclonal antibodies supplies weekly and antivirals every 2 weeks. Safeway and independent pharmacies may have oral antivirals. Hospital-associated systems and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) may have monoclonal antibodies. All therapies must be prescribed. Some pharmacies may have a home delivery option. Patients with questions about how to access their prescription should call the pharmacy.

To find available doses in your area, use HHS’s COVID-19 therapeutics locator.

Additional information


Email DOH at